Robert Rosen's anticipatory systems
Purpose ‐ This article aims to be an expository introduction to Robert Rosen's anticipatory systems, the theory of which provides the conceptual basis for foresight studies. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The ubiquity of anticipatory systems in nature is explained. Findings ‐ Causality is not violated by anticipatory systems, and teleology is an integral aspect of science. Practical implications ‐ A terse exposition for a general readership, such as the present article, by definition cannot get into too many details. For further exploration the reader is referred to the recent book More than Life Itself by the author. Originality/value ‐ The topic of anticipatory systems in particular, and methods of relational biology in general, provide important tools for foresight studies. It is the author's hope that this brief glimpse into the world of relational biology piques the interest of some readers to pursue the subject further.