States that the benefits of benchmarking are still largely unrecognized in the construction industry, despite the fact that the best practice concept has been indirectly investigated by both practitioners and researchers. Notes that some confusion seems to exist in construction circles as to what exactly benchmarking is and what it can achieve to improve productivity. Addresses the benchmarking concept and its application to construction and presents a three-level internal, project and external framework for benchmarking current practice. The three levels are examined in detail, with an illustration of the need to adapt to improve construction productivity. Uses a generic definition of benchmarking throughout to ensure applicability to the different and many aspects of the construction process.