Total quality management in secondary schools in Kenya: extent of practice
Purpose ? To investigate the extent to which secondary schools practiced aspects of total quality management (TQM). Design/methodology/approach ? A cross-sectional research design was used in this study. A sample of 300 teachers in a residential session during a school holiday provided their perceptions on the practice of TQM in their schools. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Findings ? Board of Governors and chairpersons in secondary schools are not providing the necessary leadership that would promote TQM practices necessary for schools' continuous improvement. However, some head teachers are providing the required leadership with a considerable number of school managements empowering their employees. The majority of schools are not committed to strategic quality planning, though they do promote human resource development initiatives. Research limitations/implications ? The study relied on an accessible sample of practising teachers drawn from M.Ed and PGDE students on a one-month residential session in a public University. There is likelihood that schools from all the regions of the country were not represented. Practical implications ? School management is expected to provide leadership that promotes TQM practices in order to achieve set objectives. Empowered employees participate in decision-making and are capable of increasing the quality of learning. Strategic quality planning is important for the provision of quality services while human resource development is necessary in schools to motivate and realise the maximum potential from employees. Originality/value ? The study provides research information on the Kenyan education system and quantifies the extent to which it is being practiced.