Competitive reactions to market entry: The case of the Finnish grocery retailing industry
Grocery retailing markets are becoming more open and international. Finland is an example of a previously closed and restricted market which has recently opened its borders to foreign food products as well as food retailers. This paper describes the competitive dynamics and actions of the domestic retailers that took place when the first foreign grocery retailer entered the market. The paper concludes that the main competitive moves were related to the price of food products and to changes in product ranges. The domestic retailers imitated the concept of the entrant and added new low-priced own brands into their product mixes. The roles of the market actors were reversed during the entry process: the domestic market leaders became followers and the small entrant played the role of the market leader.