The evolution of certificate model architecture
Many products and enterprise solutions are becoming available to ensure seamless, secured electronic transactions, all of which must find common trust. This paper reviews the models along a continuum with the low-assurance self-signing certificate authority (CA) at one end, and the high-assurance PKI hierarchical CA at the other. The evolution of technologies and market readiness along the continuum is discussed. The authors expand on earlier discussions of technology and geopolitical solutions and suggest mechanisms, principally the adoption of international standards and protocols, to establish universal trust across national boundaries.