The success ofFunctions of primary care groups (PCG) should be considered ahead of structures and those forming PCGs need to see the links between the key health and social policy initiatives. Early influence by PCGs will shape the design and local implementation of health action zones, health improvement programmes and performance frameworks. The Green Paper "Our Healthier Nation" and its successor are central to the emerging role of PCGs. Partnership work between GPs, practice staff, trusts, local authorities and health authorities needs emphasis. Recognition of what people and existing organisations can contribute needs to be given. Leadership themes of good primary care operations, health development and clinical leadership or their equivalents need time and space to emerge.