Processing of fruit and vegetables: effect on carotenoids
Reviews the potential impact of processing procedures on carotenoid form and content. Fruit and vegetables, in particular, are abundant sources of carotenoids in the diet. Many fruit and vegetables are subjected to various types of processing prior to consumption. Fruit may be canned, dried or processed into juices, while vegetables may be blanched, dehydrated, frozen, canned and also processed into juices. Factors such as heat, light and oxygen exposure may have detrimental effects (including destruction and isomerization, with loss of vitamin A activity), while some procedures may bring benefits (such as increased unit content and retention, breakdown of inhibitory structures and enhanced bioavailability). Concludes that the extent and nature of processing can have a significant impact on the form and content of carotenoids in processed fruit and vegetables.