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Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to present studies on how the demands of work impact the family ‐ the work-family conflict (WFC) ‐ and how the demands of family life impinge on the workplace –the family-work conflict (FWC). The goal of this paper is to examine the antecedents of the WFC and the FWC in a different cultural setting–Israeli health care administration. Design/methodology/approach ‐ Data were collected from a sample of 168 female employees in two public hospitals in Israel. Findings ‐ The findings showed a strong relationship between work attitudes, particularly job satisfaction, and the two conflict variables. A higher level of job satisfaction was related to lower levels of WFC and FWC. The relationship of organizational support to the two conflict variables was weak and not in the expected direction. Research limitations/implications ‐ The study is based on a sample taken from one occupation, dominated by public employees. Practical implications ‐ The findings suggest that an effective way to reduce the WFC and the FWC is to create positive attitudes among employees regarding their job and work setting. Originality/value ‐ The paper examines common antecedents of WFC and FWC such as background and role variables, together with two antecedents rarely considered in the literature ‐ organizational support for work-related activities and organizational support for non-work activities.