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The contractual role of straight (non-negotiable) bills of lading under US, English and Greek law

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Compares and contrasts the contractual roles of modern waybills against the traditional straight bills of lading in the context of Greek, US and English law. Chronicles the development of international lading bills; identifies the emergence of straight bills and waybills to ameliorate the logistical problems associated with order bills of lading. Discusses the legal status and contractual roles of these lading bills in the context the legislative provisions and associated case law in each of the three countries. Concludes that sea waybills (regulating marine transport of goods) and straight bills of lading have, in essence, the same contractual status, despite the confused and unconsolidated picture of international lading provisions and practices. Recommends measures - involving amendments to English legislation - to consolidate the regulation of international trade.

Keywords: Case Law; International Trade; Legislation; Marine Transport

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: January 1, 1999


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