Effect of melt processing conditions on mechanical properties of polyvinylchloride/organoclay nanocomposites
Authors: Kovarova, L.; Kalendova, A.; Simonik, J.; Malac, J.; Weiss, Z.; Gerard, J.F.
Source: Plastics, Rubber and Composites, Volume 33, Number 7, September 2004 , pp. 287-294(8)
Publisher: Maney Publishing
Abstract:Polyvinylchloride compositions have been prepared by the melt intercalation method using a single screw extruder. Different types of nanofiller based on natural sodium montmorillonite were tested. In particular, intercalating agents containing amine groups combined with co-intercalating agent (low or high molecular weight plasticiser) were examined to determine which is the most suitable not only for producing the largest basal spacing and subsequently the best exfoliation of clay tactoids in polymer matrix, but also for the highest beneficial influence on mechanical properties. In the case of improved exfoliation, the effect of compounding was investigated. Therefore, three values of screw speed were studied and some blends were compounded twice to study the retention time in a single screw extruder and the influence on orientation, dispersion and exfoliation of clay particles in the PVC matrix. Moreover, the effect of different types of plasticiser on mechanical properties was also studied. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, Bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate and Lankroflex epoxy plasticiser were tested. Dynamical thermo-mechanical properties were examined and the tensile properties of thin PVC sheets prepared by calendaring. Using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, it was found that partially intercalated and disordered structures arose in polyvinylchloride composites containing sodium montmorillonite, while a fine dispersion of partial exfoliation of individual montmorillonite layers in polyvinylchloride matrix was observed when this clay was organically modified. Finally, the value of the tensile modulus for PVC nanocomposites containing as little as 5 wt-% montmorillonite was increased three times provided that the optimum melt processing conditions were used.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2004-09-01
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