Modelling of materials for automotive braking
Author: Barton, D.C.
Source: International Materials Reviews, Volume 49, Number 6, December 2004 , pp. 379-385(7)
Publisher: Maney Publishing
Abstract:The heart of any automotive foundation brake is the so called 'friction pair', i.e. the friction material itself which usually forms the stationary component (pad or shoe) and the rotating disc brake or drum. This review considers the materials modelling aspects of both components and also how the interactions at the friction interface influence the performance and refinement of the brake. The friction material is a complex composite consisting of many different constituents with different functions, usually held together in a phenolic binder matrix. Moreover, the important properties of a friction material are its surface characteristics rather than its bulk properties. These factors make the modelling of such a material intrinsically more difficult than for a conventional composite. The review considers the emerging micromechanical modelling techniques used to simulate the complex tribological interactions that occur at the friction interface. The rotor material of choice for the majority of road vehicles remains grey cast iron which, with its graphite flakes in a pearlitic matrix, is itself a composite. As such, it has quite different properties in tension and compression and a complex cyclic hardening response. The review outlines how such complex behaviour can be modelled within a finite element analysis environment and also considers alternative rotor materials such as coated aluminium matrix composites and siliconised carbon composites that are currently under investigation using both experimental and advanced modelling techniques. The final part of the review discusses how the interactions of the two components of the friction pair influence the overall performance of the brake and also the propensity of the friction pair to suffer noise and vibration problems.
Document Type: Review Article
Publication date: 2004-12-01
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