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Maximizing the Spectacle of Water Fountains

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For a given initial speed of water from a spigot or jet, what angle of the jet will maximize the visual impact of the water spray in the fountain? This paper focuses on fountains whose spigots are arranged in circular fashion, and couches the measurement of the visual impact in terms of the surface area and the volume under the fountain's natural suggested surface (of the object of revolution of any of the streams of water about the central axis of the fountain). Pappus' two theorems involving the centroid of an arc and of an area are used as keys to answer the question. The critical angle is in general other than 60 degrees.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: 2009-09-01

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