30 Years of N Fertilisation in a Forest Ecosystem - The Fate of Added N and Effects on N Fluxes
Source: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, Volume 130, Numbers 1-4, August 2001 , pp. 637-642(6)
Abstract:We investigated the fate of added N and its effect on N fluxes in a long-term nitrogen fertilisation experiment. Ammonium nitrate was added annually (30 years) at mean rates of 0 (N0), 35 (N1), 73 (N2) and 108 (N3) kg N ha^−1 yr^−1 to a spruce forest in Sweden, which initially showed signs of N deficiency. Net N mineralisation and N leaching were measured in situ together with soil N pools. We used the PnET-CN model to model the maximum sustainable net N mineralisation rate. The short-term fate of added N was studied by addition of ^15NH_4Cl. In N1 and N2 most of the added N (80–120%) was retained in the system, compared to 45% in N3. A major fraction was retained in the organic horizons (58–79%). The internal N fluxes had increased considerably as a result of the N additions. Net N mineralisation in N1 had increased by a factor 10 and litterfall N flux by a factor 4. The PnET-CN model could not mimic the fast changes in tree growth and N mineralisation, but the maximum N mineralisation rate seems realistic. The ratio of actual to maximum mineralisation rate indicates that the N1 treatment now is close to N saturation, and nitrate was occasionally found in soil solution from the B-horizon in N1. The N retained was probably to a great extent immobilised directly by mycorrhizal fungi, as indicated by the high amounts of ^15N found in the L and F layers and by the great fraction of ^15N found in amino sugars compared to amino acids.
Document Type: Regular Paper
Affiliations: 1: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, BOX 7014, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden e-mail: email@example.com 2: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, BOX 7014, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
Publication date: August 1, 2001