The Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) Investigation
Authors: Waite J.1; Lewis W.2; Kasprzak W.3; Anicich V.4; Block B.5; Cravens T.6; Fletcher G.5; Ip W.-H.7; Luhmann J.8; Mcnutt R.9; Niemann H.3; Parejko J.5; Richards J.3; Thorpe R.2; Walter E.5; Yelle R.10
Source: Space Science Reviews, Volume 114, Number 1, December 2004 , pp. 113-231(119)
Abstract:The Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) investigation will determine the mass composition and number densities of neutral species and low-energy ions in key regions of the Saturn system. The primary focus of the INMS investigation is on the composition and structure of Titans upper atmosphere and its interaction with Saturns magnetospheric plasma. Of particular interest is the high-altitude region, between 900 and 1000 km, where the methane and nitrogen photochemistry is initiated that leads to the creation of complex hydrocarbons and nitriles that may eventually precipitate onto the moons surface to form hydrocarbonnitrile lakes or oceans. The investigation is also focused on the neutral and plasma environments of Saturns ring system and icy moons and on the identification of positive ions and neutral species in Saturns inner magnetosphere. Measurement of material sputtered from the satellites and the rings by magnetospheric charged particle and micrometeorite bombardment is expected to provide information about the formation of the giant neutral cloud of water molecules and water products that surrounds Saturn out to a distance of 12 planetary radii and about the genesis and evolution of the rings.The INMS instrument consists of a closed ion source and an open ion source, various focusing lenses, an electrostatic quadrupole switching lens, a radio frequency quadrupole mass analyzer, two secondary electron multiplier detectors, and the associated supporting electronics and power supply systems. The INMS will be operated in three different modes: a closed source neutral mode, for the measurement of non-reactive neutrals such as N2 and CH4; an open source neutral mode, for reactive neutrals such as atomic nitrogen; and an open source ion mode, for positive ions with energies less than 100 eV. Instrument sensitivity is greatest in the first mode, because the ram pressure of the inflowing gas can be used to enhance the density of the sampled non-reactive neutrals in the closed source antechamber. In this mode, neutral species with concentrations on the order of 104 cm-3 will be detected (compared with 105 cm-3 in the open source neutral mode). For ions the detection threshold is on the order of 10-2 cm-3 at Titan relative velocity (6 km sec-1). The INMS instrument has a mass range of 199 Daltons and a mass resolutionM/M of 100 at 10% of the mass peak height, which will allow detection of heavier hydrocarbon species and of possible cyclic hydrocarbons such as C6H6.The INMS instrument was built by a team of engineers and scientists working at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center (Planetary Atmospheres Laboratory) and the University of Michigan (Space Physics Research Laboratory). INMS development and fabrication were directed by Dr. Hasso B. Niemann (Goddard Space Flight Center). The instrument is operated by a Science Team, which is also responsible for data analysis and distribution. The INMS Science Team is led by Dr. J. Hunter Waite, Jr. (University of Michigan).
Document Type: Research article
Affiliations: 1: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, U.S.A., Email: firstname.lastname@example.org 10: University of Arizona, Flagstaff, AZ, U.S.A., 2: Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, U.S.A., 3: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, U.S.A., 4: NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, U.S.A., 5: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, U.S.A., 6: University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, U.S.A., 7: National Central University, Chung-Li, Taiwan, 8: University of California, Berkeley, CA, U.S.A., 9: Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD, U.S.A.,
Publication date: 2004-12-01