Modulation of Galactic Cosmic Rays at Solar Minimum
Source: Space Science Reviews, Volume 89, Number 1-2, 1999 , pp. 125-138(14)
Abstract:Cosmic ray particles respond to the heliospheric magnetic field in the expanding solar wind and its turbulence and therefore provide a unique probe for conditions in the changing heliosphere. During the last four years, concentrated around the solar minimum period of solar cycle 22, the exploration of the solar polar regions by the joint ESA/NASA mission Ulysses revealed the three-dimensional behavior of cosmic rays in the inner and middle heliosphere. Also during the last decades, the Pioneer and Voyager missions have greatly expanded our understanding of the structure and extent of the outer heliosphere. Simultaneously, numerical models describing the propagation of galactic cosmic rays are becoming sophisticated tools for interpreting and understanding these observations. We give an introduction to the subject of the modulation of galactic cosmic rays in the heliosphere during solar minimum. The modulation effects on cosmic rays of corotating interaction regions and their successors in the outer heliosphere are discussed in more detail by Gazis, McDonald et al. (1999) and McKibben, Jokipii et al. (1999) in this volume. Cosmic-ray observations from the Ulysses spacecraft at high heliographic latitudes are also described extensively in this volume by Kunow, Lee et al. (1999).
Document Type: Regular Paper
Affiliations: 1: CEA, DSM/DAPNIA/Service d'Astrophysique, Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France 2: Space Research Unit, Dept. of Physics, Potchefstroom University for CHE, 2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa
Publication date: 1999-01-01