Volcanic and Scientific Activity at Kick em Jenny Submarine Volcano 20012002: Implications for Volcanic Hazard in the Southern Grenadines, Lesser Antilles
Source: Natural Hazards, Volume 34, Number 1, January 2005 , pp. 1-24(24)
Abstract:Kick em Jenny submarine volcano, ~8 km north of Grenada, has erupted at least 12 times since it was first discovered in 1939, making it the most frequently active volcano in the Lesser Antilles arc. The volcano lies in shallow water close to significant population centres and directly beneath a major shipping route, and as a consequence an understanding of the eruptive behaviour and potential hazards at the volcano is critical. The most recent eruption at Kick em Jenny occurred on December 4 2001, and differed significantly from past eruptions in that it was preceded by an intensive volcanic earthquake swarm. In March 2002 a multi-beam bathymetric survey of the volcano and its surroundings was carried out by the NOAA ship Ronald H Brown. This survey provided detailed three-dimensional images of the volcano, revealing the detailed morphology of the summit area. The volcano is capped by a summit crater which is breached to the northeast and which varies in diameter from 300 to 370 m. The depth to the summit (highest point on the crater rim) is 185 m and the depth to the lowest point inside the crater is 264 m. No dome is present within the crater. The crater and summit region of Kick em Jenny are located at the top of an asymmetrical cone which is about 1300 m from top to bottom on its western side. It lies within what appear to be the remnants of a much larger arcuate collapse structure. An evaluation of the morphology, bathymetry and eruptive history of the volcano indicates that the threat of eruption-generated tsunamis is considerably lower than previously thought, mainly because the volcano is no longer thought to be growing towards the surface. Of more major and immediate concern are the direct hazards associated with the volcano, such as ballistic ejecta, water disturbances and lowered water density due to degassing.
Document Type: Research article
Affiliations: 1: Seismic Research Unit, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago, Email: email@example.com 2: Seismic Research Unit, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago, 3: NOAA OAR/Chesapeake Bay Office, 410 Severn Ave, Annapolis, MD, 21403, USA,
Publication date: 2005-01-01