Sustainable management of native and exotic plantations in Australia
Source: New Forests, Volume 18, Number 1, 1999 , pp. 17-32(16)
The emphasis of plantation management changes as the resource and the market develop. This is especially the case when a plantation program is developing a new timber resource, is not the case with many of the Pinus radiata (D. Don) plantings in the southern hemisphere. Australia establishes and manages plantations of both exotic conifer and native hardwood (Eucalyptus spp.) plantations, and these vary in their stage of development. The tenure and objectives in establishment have varied, but some key aspects of the resources may be analyzed. Optimization of production per unit area was not a prime objective during the developmental stages of many exotic pine plantations. Currently, with increased commercial emphasis, this has changed to a greater focus on increased value through Site Specific Management and tree improvement through which gains of at least 20 percent are expected during the first stages. With a key objective of sustainability, questions regarding impacts of soils, water, and biological changes need consideration and are being addressed.
The eucalypt plantation resource in Australia is smaller in extent than is the pine resource, but of increasing importance, especially as the plantations are perceived to be more environmentally and ecologically acceptable than exotic conifers. In the past, questions of productivity, especially in relation to impacts of natural pests and diseases, have been raised. Sustainability of all plantations is a critical aspect, however, for specific issues there are different emphases with different species. For example, the relatively, high removal of calcium in smooth barked Eucalyptus plantations is seen as important in long term forest management.
Document Type: Regular paper
Publication date: 1999-01-01