Effects of Gluten Free / Casein Free Diet in Young Children with Autism: A Pilot Study

Authors: Johnson, Cynthia1; Handen, Benjamin2; Zimmer, Michelle3; Sacco, Kelley4; Turner, Kylan5

Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, Volume 23, Number 3, June 2011 , pp. 213-225(13)

Publisher: Springer

Buy & download fulltext article:


Price: $47.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)


With reports of the growing incidence of autism spectrum disorder ASD in the United States, a large number of families of affected children is seeking alternative or complementary forms of treatment. One of the more popular interventions has been use of elimination regimes, such as the gluten and casein free (GFCF) diet. This pilot study involved a three-month, prospective, open label, randomized, parallel groups design of a GFCF diet compared to a healthy, low sugar diet (attention control) for young children with ASD. Both treatment groups evidenced some gains across a range of variables, including measures of behavior, language, and ratings of the core features of ASD. No statistically significant differences were noted between treatment groups. While our results do not support use of a GFCF diet in ASD, it is possible that a greater period of time is required for treatment before gains can be observed. Moreover, no significant nutritional differences or side effects were observed on the GFCF diet compared to the control diet. However, adherence to the GFCF diet proved difficult based on our adherence data.

Keywords: Autism; Casein-free diet; Dietary restrictions; Gluten-fee

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10882-010-9217-x

Affiliations: 1: Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Autism Center, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3420 5th Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA, Email: Cynthia.Johnson@chp.edu 2: University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA 3: University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA 4: Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA 5: University of Pittsburgh School of Education, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

Publication date: June 1, 2011

Related content


Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content

Text size:

A | A | A | A
Share this item with others: These icons link to social bookmarking sites where readers can share and discover new web pages. print icon Print this page