Kinetics of AuSn4 migration in lead-free solders
Authors: Chang, C.; Ho, C.; Yang, S.; Kao, C.
Source: Journal of Electronic Materials, Volume 35, Number 11, November 2006 , pp. 1948-1954(7)
Abstract:The relatively fast diffusion of Au atoms in eutectic PbSn matrix is considered one of the contributing factors to the Au embrittlement problem. In this study, we further investigated the Au embrittlement problem in high-Sn solders. Experimentally, Sn3.5Ag (wt.%) spheres with 500-μm diameter were soldered over the Au/Ni soldering pads. It was found that some of the AuSn4 needles that formed after reflow inside the solder migrated back to the solder/pad interface during thermal aging. However, the migration kinetics in high-Sn solders was slower compared to that in eutectic PbSn. The difference in migration kinetics of AuSn4 in eutectic PbSn and SnAg was ascribed to the difference in the magnitudes of the Au flux and the Ni flux. In eutectic PbSn, the Au flux was much greater than that of the Ni flux, and the Au and Ni flux were in the same order of magnitude in eutectic SnAg. The relative magnitude of the Au and Ni flux changed in eutectic PbSn and SnAg because the homologous temperatures of PbSn and SnAg were different.
Document Type: Research article
Publication date: 2006-11-01