Electrical Characteristics for Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Bump with Ti/Ni/Cu Under-Bump Metallization after Temperature Cycling Tests
Authors: Shih, T.I.; Lin, Y.C.; Duh, J.G.; Hsu, Tom
Source: Journal of Electronic Materials, Volume 35, Number 10, October 2006 , pp. 1773-1780(8)
Abstract:Lead-free solder bumps have been widely used in current flip-chip technology (FCT) due to environmental issues. Solder joints after temperature cycling tests were employed to investigate the interfacial reaction between the Ti/Ni/Cu under-bump metallization and Sn-Ag-Cu solders. The interfacial morphology and quantitative analysis of the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) were obtained by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and field emission electron probe microanalysis (FE-EPMA). Various types of IMCs such as (Cu1−x,Agx)6Sn5, (Cu1−y,Agy)3Sn, and (Ag1−z,Cuz)3Sn were observed. In addition to conventional I-V measurements by a special sample preparation technique, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) internal probing system was introduced to evaluate the electrical characteristics in the IMCs after various test conditions. The electrical data would be correlated to microstructural evolution due to the interfacial reaction between the solder and under-bump metallurgy (UBM). This study demonstrated the successful employment of an internal nanoprobing approach, which would help further understanding of the electrical behavior within an IMC layer in the solder/UBM assembly.
Document Type: Regular paper
Publication date: 2006-10-01