Thermosonic Bonding of Gold Wire onto Silver Bonding Layer on the Bond Pads of Chips with Copper Interconnects
Authors: Chuang, Cheng-Li; Aoh, Jong-Ning
Source: Journal of Electronic Materials, Volume 35, Number 9, September 2006 , pp. 1693-1700(8)
Abstract:A copper pad oxidizes easily at elevated temperatures during thermosonic wire bonding for chips with copper interconnects. The bondability and bonding strength of a gold wire onto a bare copper pad are seriously degraded by the formation of a copper oxide film. A new bonding approach is proposed to overcome this intrinsic drawback of the copper pad. A silver layer is deposited as a bonding layer on the surface of copper pads. Both the ball-shear force and the wire-pull force of a gold wire bonded onto copper pads with silver bonding layers far exceed the minimum values stated in the JEDEC standard and MIL specifications. The silver bonding layer improves bonding between the gold ball and copper pads. The reliability of gold ball bonds on a bond pad is verified in a high-temperature storage (HTS) test. The bonding strength increases with the storage time and far exceeds that required by the relevant industrial codes. The superior bondability and high strength after the HTS test were interpreted with reference to the results of electron probe x-ray microanalyzer (EPMA) analysis. This use of a silver bonding layer may make the fabrication of copper chips simpler than by other protective schemes.
Document Type: Regular paper
Publication date: 2006-09-01