Optimal Phosphorous Content Selection for the Soldering Reaction of Ni-P Under Bump Metallization with Sn-Ag-Cu Solder
Authors: Lin, Yung-Chi; Duh, Jenq-Gong
Source: Journal of Electronic Materials, Volume 35, Number 8, August 2006 , pp. 1665-1671(7)
Abstract:Nickel plating has been used as the under bump metallization (UBM) in the microelectronics industry. The electroplated Ni-P UBM with different phosphorous contents (7 wt.%, 10 wt.%, and 13 wt.%) was used to evaluate the interfacial reaction between Ni-P UBM and Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu solder paste during multiple reflow. (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 intermetallic compounds (IMC) formed in the SnAgCu solder/Ni-P UBM interface after the first reflow. For three times reflow, (Ni,Cu)3Sn4 IMC formed, while (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 IMC spalled into the solder matrix. With further increasing cycles of reflow, the Ni-Sn-P layer formed between (Ni,Cu)3Sn4 IMC and Ni-P UBM for Ni-10wt.%P and Ni-13wt.%P UBM. However, almost no Ni-Sn-P layer was revealed for the Ni-7wt.%P UBM even after ten cycles of reflow. In consideration of the wettability of Ni-P UBM, the interfacial reaction of SnAgCu/Ni-P, and dissolution of Ni-P UBM, the optimal phosphorous selection in Ni-P UBM was proposed and also discussed.
Document Type: Regular Paper
Publication date: August 1, 2006