Thermal Gradient in Solder Joints under Electrical-Current Stressing
Authors: Shao, T.L.; Chiu, S.H.; Chen, Chih; Yao, D.J.; Hsu, C.Y.
Source: Journal of Electronic Materials, Volume 33, Number 11, November 2004 , pp. 1350-1354(5)
Abstract:The thermal gradient and temperature increase in SnAg3.5 solder joints under electrical-current stressing have been investigated by thermal infrared microscopy. Both positive and negative thermal gradients were observed under different stressing conditions. The magnitude of the thermal gradient increases with the applied current. The measured thermal gradients reached 365°C/cm as powered by 0.59 A, yet no obvious thermal gradient was observed when the joints were powered less than 0.25 A. The temperature increase caused by joule heating was as high as 54.5°C when powered by 0.59 A, yet only 3.7°C when stressed by 0.19 A. The location of heat generation and path of heat dissipation are believed to play crucial roles in the thermal gradient. When the major heat source is the Al trace, the thermal gradient in the solder bumps is positive; but it may become negative because the heat generated in the solder itself is more prominent.
Document Type: Regular Paper
Publication date: November 1, 2004