HgCdTe/Si Materials for Long Wavelength Infrared Detectors
Authors: Johnson, S.M.; Buell, A.A.; Vilela, M.F.; Peterson, J.M.; Varesi, J.B.; Newton, M.D.; Venzor, G.M.; Bornfreund, R.E.; Radford, W.A.; Smith, E.P.G.; Rosbeck, J.P.; De Lyon, T.J.; Jensen, J.E.; Nathan, V.
Source: Journal of Electronic Materials, Volume 33, Number 6, 1 June 2004 , pp. 526-530(5)
Abstract:The heteroepitaxial growth of HgCdTe on large-area Si substrates is an enabling technology leading to the production of low-cost, large-format infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs). This approach will allow HgCdTe FPA technology to be scaled beyond the limitations of bulk CdZnTe substrates. We have already achieved excellent mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and short wavelength infrared (SWIR) detector and FPA results using HgCdTe grown on 4-in. Si substrates using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and this work was focused on extending these results into the long wavelength infrared (LWIR) spectral regime. A series of nine p-on-n LWIR HgCdTe double-layer heterojunction (DLHJ) detector structures were grown on 4-in. Si substrates. The HgCdTe composition uniformity was very good over the entire 4-in. wafer with a typical maximum nonuniformity of 2.2% at the very edge of the wafer; run-to-run composition reproducibility, realized with real-time feedback control using spectroscopic ellipsometry, was also very good. Both secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Hall-effect measurements showed well-behaved doping and majority carrier properties, respectively. Preliminary detector results were promising for this initial work and good broad-band spectral response was demonstrated; 61% quantum efficiency was measured, which is very good compared to a maximum allowed value of 70% for a non-antireflection-coated Si surface. The R0A products for HgCdTe/Si detectors in the 9.6-μm and 12-μm cutoff range were at least one order of magnitude below typical results for detectors fabricated on bulk CdZnTe substrates. This lower performance was attributed to an elevated dislocation density, which is in the mid-106cm-2 range. The dislocation density in HgCdTe/Si needs to be reduced to <106cm-2 to make high-performance LWIR detectors, and multiple approaches are being tried across the infrared community to achieve this result because the technological payoff is significant.
Document Type: Research article
Publication date: 2004-06-01
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- In this Subject: Materials & Manufacturing
- By this author: Johnson, S.M. ; Buell, A.A. ; Vilela, M.F. ; Peterson, J.M. ; Varesi, J.B. ; Newton, M.D. ; Venzor, G.M. ; Bornfreund, R.E. ; Radford, W.A. ; Smith, E.P.G. ; Rosbeck, J.P. ; De Lyon, T.J. ; Jensen, J.E. ; Nathan, V.