Recent Developments in Rapid Thermal Processing
Author: Fiory, A.T.
Source: Journal of Electronic Materials, Volume 31, Number 10, 1 October 2002 , pp. 981-987(7)
Abstract:Rapid thermal annealing (RTA) with a short dwell time at maximum temperature is used with ion implantation to form shallow junctions and polycrystalline-Si gate electrodes in complementary, metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) Si processing. Wafers are heated by electric lamps or steady heat sources with rapid wafer transfer. Advanced methods use "spike anneals," wherein high-temperature ramp rates are used for both heating and cooling while also minimizing the dwell time at peak temperature to nominally zero. The fast thermal cycles are required to reduce the undesirable effects of transient-enhanced diffusion (TED) and thermal deactivation of the dopants. Because junction profiles are sensitive to annealing temperature, the challenge in spike annealing is to maintain temperature uniformity across the wafer and repeatability from wafer to wafer. Multiple lamp systems use arrayed temperature sensors for individual control zones. Other methods rely on process chambers that are designed for uniform wafer heating. Generally, sophisticated techniques for accurate temperature measurement and control by emissivity-compensated infrared pyrometry are required because processed Si wafers exhibit appreciable variation in emissivity.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2002-10-01