Correlation of arsenic incorporation and its electrical activation in MBE HgCdTe
Authors: Lee, T.; Garland, J.; Grein, C.; Sumstine, M.; Jandeska, A.; Selamet, Y.; Sivananthan, S.
Source: Journal of Electronic Materials, Volume 29, Number 6, June 2000 , pp. 869-872(4)
Abstract:The behavior of arsenic for p-type doping of MBE HgCdTe layers has been studied for various annealing temperatures and arsenic doping concentrations. We have demonstrated that arsenic is in-situ incorporated into HgCdTe layers during MBE growth. The carrier concentration has been measured by the Van der Pauw technique, and the total arsenic concentration has been determined by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. After annealing at 250°C under an Hg over pressure, As-doped HgCdTe layers show highly compensated n-type properties and the carrier concentration is approximately constant (∼mid 1015 cm−3) until the total arsenic concentration in the HgCdTe layers approach mid 1017 cm−3. The source of n-type behavior does not appear to be associated with arsenic dopants, such as arsenic atoms occupying Hg vacancy sites, but rather unidentified structural defects acting as donors. When the total arsenic concentration is above mid 1017 cm−3, the carrier concentration shows a dependence on the arsenic concentration while remaining n-type. We conjecture that the increase in n-type behavior may be due to donor arsenic tetramers or donor tetramer clusters. Above a total arsenic concentration of 1∼2×1018 cm−3, after annealing at 300°C, the arsenic acceptor activation ratio rapidly decreases below 100% with increasing arsenic concentration and is smaller than that after annealing at 450°C. The electrically inactive arsenic is inferred to be in the form of neutral arsenic tetramer clusters incorporated during the MBE growth. Annealing at 450°C appears to supply enough thermal energy to break some of the bonds of neutral arsenic tetramer clusters so that the separated arsenic atoms could occupy Te sites and behave as acceptors. However, the number of arsenic atoms on Te sites is saturated at ∼2×1018 cm−3, possibly due to a limitation of its solid solubility in HgCdTe.
Document Type: Research article
Publication date: 2000-06-01