Planar optical waveguides prepared in GIL49 and BK7 glass substrates by K+-Na+ ion exchange with the electric field assistance
Source: Journal of Electronic Materials, Volume 28, Number 10, October 1999 , pp. 1088-1095(8)
Abstract:This report focuses on research into waveguides prepared by K+-Na+ ion exchange with the help of an electric field, and the subsequent comparison with waveguides prepared by pure thermal ion exchange. The goals of this work were to determine the characteristics of and to address the technological problems associated with waveguides prepared in two types of highly pure optical glass: special soda-lime silica GIL49 glass produced from pure raw materials and commercially prepared borosilicate BK7 glass. An appropriate chemical mixture, KNO3:Ca(NO3)2 in the molar ratio of 41:59, was used as the source of potassium ions. Experiments were conducted at temperatures between 250 and 410°C, and electric field values between 0 and 150 V/mm. The number of modes, depth, profile, and the change in refractive index (Δn) were measured for samples from each type of glass under various technological conditions. All of these parameters can be controlled accurately and repeatedly by the electric field. These experiments have also shown that a particular advantage of these types of pure glass is the low waveguide optical losses (0.1 to 0.2 dB/cm) attainable.
Document Type: Research article
Publication date: 1999-10-01