Sexual Skin Color Contains Information About the Timing of the Fertile Phase in Free-ranging Macaca mulatta

Authors: Dubuc, Constance1; Brent, Lauren2; Accamando, Amanda3; Gerald, Melissa3; MacLarnon, Ann2; Semple, Stuart2; Heistermann, Michael4; Engelhardt, Antje4

Source: International Journal of Primatology, Volume 30, Number 6, December 2009 , pp. 777-789(13)

Publisher: Springer

Buy & download fulltext article:


Price: $47.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)


Females of several primate species undergo cyclical changes of their sexual skin, i.e., the development of a swelling or a change in color. The relationship between intracycle probability of fertility and the size of sexual swellings is well established, but in the only study to combine an objective measure of color with endocrinological data, researchers found no evidence that swelling color contains such information. To evaluate the role of female skin color in the context of sexual signaling further, we investigated whether changes in sexual skin color contain information about the timing of the fertile phase in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a species in which adult females do not develop sexual swellings, but do express visually detectable changes in the skin color of the face and hindquarters. Using an objective and quantitative measure of color, along with detailed data on fecal progestogen and estrogen metabolite levels collected from 8 females of the Cayo Santiago colony, we show that the ratio of red to green (R/G) for facial and hindquarter skin significantly varies throughout the ovarian cycle. In addition, facial skin R/G is significantly higher during the 5-d fertile phase versus the 5-d periods immediately before or after this time, but no such pattern occurs in hindquarter R/G. This suggests that skin color change in female rhesus macaques may potentially signal information about the intracycle probability of fertility to male receivers, but that only facial skin color may signal reliable information about its timing.

Keywords: Macaca mulatta; color; fecal steroids; fertile phase; sexual skin

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: Département d’Anthropologie, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3J7, Canada, Email: 2: Centre for Research in Evolutionary Anthropology, Roehampton University, London, SW15 4JD, UK 3: Cayo Santiago, Caribbean Primate Research Center, Unit of Comparative Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Puerto Rico, Punta Santiago, PR, 00714, USA 4: Department of Reproductive Biology, German Primate Centre, 37077, Göttingen, Germany

Publication date: December 1, 2009


Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content

Text size:

A | A | A | A
Share this item with others: These icons link to social bookmarking sites where readers can share and discover new web pages. print icon Print this page