Life-Phase Related Changes in Male Loud Call Characteristics and Testosterone Levels in Wild Thomas Langurs
Source: International Journal of Primatology, Volume 24, Number 6, 200312 , pp. 1251-1265(15)
Abstract:Males in many primate species give loud calls. Lifetime changes in loud calls may be due to either age or social changes. We examined loud call characteristics, loud call production and levels of fecal testosterone among 4 life-phases of male Thomas langurs (Presbytis thomasi): all-male band (AMB), early, middle, and late life-phase in mixed-sex groups. Discriminant analyses showed that a high percentage of loud calls could be assigned correctly to the proper life-phase. The most significant change in loud call characteristics is an increase in tonal units and duration from the AMB to the early life-phase, accompanied by a decrease in non-tonal units. Since adult AMB males have a similar age to that of early life-phase males, we suggest that social rather than age-related changes underlie the loud call differences between AMB males and early life-phase males. This could also be related to the increase in testosterone levels from the AMB to the early life-phase. In addition, we postulate that females may use loud call characteristics as a cue to choose between young and old males once they decided to leave their current male, and possibly also as a cue to decide to leave their current male as he enters his late life-phase.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Utrecht University, Behavioural Biology, Po. box 80086, 3508 TB, Utrecht, The Netherlands;, Email: email@example.com 2: Utrecht University, Behavioural Biology, Po. box 80086, 3508 TB, Utrecht, The Netherlands 3: Department of Reproductive Biology, German Primate Centre, Kellnerweg 4, 37077, Göttingen, Germany
Publication date: 200312