Distribution of Grooming Among Adult Females in a Large, Free-Ranging Group of Japanese Macaques
Source: International Journal of Primatology, Volume 24, Number 3, June 2003 , pp. 607-625(19)
We analyzed grooming episodes recorded among adult females in a large, provisioned, free-ranging group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) at an individual level. Each female groomed on average 10 of the other 84 females, and 54% of them devoted ≥50% of their grooming to a single female grooming partner, which indicates that most females had grooming interactions with a relatively small subset of available females. Although 65% of the total grooming bouts were between related females, 25% of females disproportionately groomed unrelated females, 22% groomed related and unrelated females equally, and grooming was kin-biased for the remaining 53%. Moreover, 11 of 16 kin-groups included at least one female that groomed unrelated females significantly more often than related females. In 18% of unrelated dyads, grooming was directed down the hierarchy, in 58%, grooming was well-balanced between the two females, and in the remaining 25%, grooming was directed up the hierarchy. The results indicate that although Japanese macaques are considered a despotic species based on their dominance style, this group included some females that showed egalitarian tendencies, i.e., grooming was directed down the hierarchy or was well-balanced, and was directed toward unrelated females as often as or more often than toward related females. The presence of egalitarian individuals might be important to maintain a well-organized, female-bonded group.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Laboratory of Ethological Studies, Faculty of Human Sciences, Osaka University; firstname.lastname@example.org 2: Laboratory of Ethological Studies, Faculty of Human Sciences, Osaka University
Publication date: June 1, 2003