Sex Differential Behavior of Immature Hanuman Langurs (Presbytis entellus) in Ramnagar, South Nepal
Source: International Journal of Primatology, Volume 18, Number 3, 199706 , pp. 415-437(23)
Abstract:We investigated sex differences in the social behavior of immature Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus) in the light of sex-specifically different life-courses and Hanuman langur characteristics, such as the individualistic dominance hierarchy and the rarity of intragroup coalitions among adult females. We observed four immature female and four immature male langurs—all members of the same free-ranging multimale multifemale group in Ramnagar, South Nepal—from November 1992 to February 1993 for 288 hr via focal-animal and instantaneous sampling techniques. Immature females spent significantly more time in proximity to other group members than immature males did. They had more physical contact and groomed more. Other immature females were their preferred social partners. Immature males also preferred like-aged females. They restricted their relationships with other immature males to proximity and occasional grooming. Monitoring was directed especially toward adult males. Female behavior can be interpreted as oriented toward integration into the female social network and their age-inverted dominance hierarchy. Males seem to prepare for leaving their natal group and for future strong intrasexual competition.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: January 1, 1997