Genetic evidence for speciation in Cannabis (Cannabaceae)

Author: Hillig, Karl

Source: Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, Volume 52, Number 2, March 2005 , pp. 161-180(20)

Publisher: Springer

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Abstract:

Sample populations of 157 Cannabis accessions of diverse geographic origin were surveyed for allozyme variation at 17 gene loci. The frequencies of 52 alleles were subjected to principal components analysis. A scatter plot revealed two major groups of accessions. The sativa gene pool includes fiber/seed landraces from Europe, Asia Minor, and Central Asia, and ruderal populations from Eastern Europe. The indica gene pool includes fiber/seed landraces from eastern Asia, narrow-leafleted drug strains from southern Asia, Africa, and Latin America, wide-leafleted drug strains from Afghanistan and Pakistan, and feral populations from India and Nepal. A third putative gene pool includes ruderal populations from Central Asia. None of the previous taxonomic concepts that were tested adequately circumscribe the sativa and indica gene pools. A polytypic concept of Cannabis is proposed, which recognizes three species, C. sativa, C. indica and C. ruderalis, and seven putative taxa.

Keywords: Allozyme; Cannabis; Evolution; Genetics; Origin; Taxonomy

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10722-003-4452-y

Affiliations: Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA, Email: khillig@bio.indiana.edu

Publication date: March 1, 2005

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