Dynamical Evolution of Planets in Disks

Author: Kley, W.

Source: Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy, Volume 87, Numbers 1-2, September 2003 , pp. 85-97(13)

Publisher: Springer

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Abstract:



We study the evolution of a system consisting of two protoplanets still embedded in a protoplanetary disk. Results of two different numerical approaches are presented. In the first kind of model the motion of the disk material is followed by fully viscous hydrodynamical simulations, and the planetary motion is determined by N-body calculations including exactly the gravitational potential from the disk material. In the second kind we only solve the N-body part and add additional analytically given forces which model the effect of the torques of the disk. This type of modeling is of course orders of magnitudes faster than the full hydro-model. Another advantage of this two-fold approach is the possibility of adjusting the otherwise unknown parameters of the simplified model.

The results give very good agreement between the methods. Using two different initial setups for the planets and disk, we obtain in the first case a resonant trapping into the 3:1 resonance, and in the second case a trapping into the 2:1 resonance. Resonant capture leads to a rise in the eccentricity and to an alignment of the spatial orientation of orbits. The characteristics of the numerical results agree very favorably with those of three observed planetary systems (GJ 876, HD 82943, and 55 Cnc) known to be in mean motion resonances.

Keywords: accretion disk; planet formation; resonances

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Astronomie und Astrophysik, Abt. Computational Physics, Universität Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany, e-mail: wilhelm.kley@uni-tuebingen.de

Publication date: September 1, 2003

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