Evolutionary Psychology: The Burdens of Proof

Author: Lloyd, E.A.

Source: Biology and Philosophy, Volume 14, Number 2, April 1999 , pp. 211-233(23)

Publisher: Springer

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Abstract:

I discuss two types of evidential problems with the most widely touted experiments in evolutionary psychology, those performed by Leda Cosmides and interpreted by Cosmides and John Tooby. First, and despite Cosmides and Tooby's claims to the contrary, these experiments don't fulfil the standards of evidence of evolutionary biology. Second Cosmides and Tooby claim to have performed a crucial experiment, and to have eliminated rival approaches. Though they claim that their results are consistent with their theory but contradictory to the leading non-evolutionary alternative, Pragmatic Reasoning Schemas theory, I argue that this claim is unsupported. In addition, some of Cosmides and Tooby's interpretations arise from misguided and simplistic understandings of evolutionary biology. While I endorse the incorporation of evolutionary approaches into psychology, I reject the claims of Cosmides and Tooby that a modular approach is the only one supported by evolutionary biology. Lewontin's critical examinations of the applications of adaptationist thinking provide a background of evidentiary standards against which to view the currently fashionable claims of evolutionary psychology.

Keywords: adaptation; evolutionary psychology; reasoning

Document Type: Regular Paper

Affiliations: History and Philosophy of Science Department, Biology Department, Indiana University, Goodbody Hall 130, Bloomington, IN 47405, U.S.A. E-mail: ealloyd@indiana.edu

Publication date: April 1, 1999

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