Fractal-Generated Turbulence in Opposed Jet Flows

Authors: Geipel, Philipp1; Goh, K.1; Lindstedt, R.2

Source: Applied Scientific Research, Volume 85, Numbers 3-4, December 2010 , pp. 397-419(23)

Publisher: Springer

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The opposed jet configuration presents a canonical geometry suitable for the evaluation of calculation methods seeking to reproduce the impact of strain and re-distribution on turbulent transport in reacting and non-reacting flows. The geometry has the advantage of good optical access and, in principle, an absence of complex boundary conditions. Disadvantages include low frequency flow motion at high nozzle separations and comparatively low turbulence levels causing bulk strain to exceed the turbulent contribution at small nozzle separations. In the current work, fractal generated turbulence has been used to increase the turbulent strain and velocity measurements for isothermal flows are reported with an emphasis on the axis, stagnation plane and the distribution of mean and instantaneous strain rates. Energy spectra were also determined. The instrumentation comprised hot-wire anemometry and particle image velocimetry with the flows to both nozzles seeded with 1  $\upmu$ m silicon oil droplets providing a relaxation time of ≃ 3 $\upmu$ s. It is shown that fractal grids increase the turbulent Reynolds number range from 48–125 to 109–220 for bulk velocities from 4 to 8 m/s as compared to conventional perforated plate turbulence generators. Low frequency motion of the order 10 Hz could not be completely eliminated and probability density functions were determined for the location of the stagnation plane. Results show that the fluctuation in the position of the stagnation plane is of the order of the integral length scale, which was determined to be 3.1±0.1 mm at the nozzle exits through the use of hot-wire anemometry. Flow statistics close to the fractal plate located upstream of the nozzle exit were also determined using a transparent glass nozzle.

Keywords: Fractal grids; Inflow; Opposed jets; PIV; Turbulent

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London, SW7 2AZ, UK 2: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London, SW7 2AZ, UK, Email:

Publication date: December 1, 2010

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