Is Helmholtz Resonance a Problem for Micro-jet Actuators?
Authors: Lockerby, Duncan; Carpenter, Peter; Davies, Christopher
Source: Applied Scientific Research, Volume 78, Numbers 3-4, June 2007 , pp. 205-222(18)
Abstract:A theoretical analysis is described that determines the conditions for Helmholtz resonance for a popular class of self-contained microjet actuator used in both synthetic- and pressure-jump (pulse-jet) mode. It was previously shown that the conditions for Helmholtz resonance are identical to those for optimizing actuator performance for maximum mass flux. The methodology is described for numerical-simulation studies on how Helmholtz resonance affects the interaction of active and nominally inactive micro-jet actuators with a laminar boundary layer. Two sets of numerical simulations were carried out. The first set models the interaction of an active actuator with the boundary layer. These simulations confirm that our criterion for Helmholtz resonance is broadly correct. When it is satisfied we find that the actuator cannot be treated as a predetermined wall boundary condition because the interaction with the boundary layer changes the pressure difference across the exit orifice thereby affecting the outflow from the actuator. We further show that strong inflow cannot be avoided even when the actuator is used in pressure-jump mode. In the second set of simulations two-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting waves, with frequency comparable with, but not particularly close to, the Helmholtz resonant frequency, are incident on a nominally inactive micro-jet actuator. The simulations show that under these circumstances the actuators act as strong sources of 3D Tollmien-Schlichting waves. It is surmised that in the real-life aeronautical applications with turbulent boundary layers broadband disturbances of the pressure field, including acoustic waves, would cause nominally inactive actuators, possibly including pulsed jets, to act as strong disturbance sources. Should this be true it would probably be disastrous for engineering applications of such massless microjet actuators for flow control.
Document Type: Research article
Publication date: 2007-06-01