Intradiurnal periodicity of fungal spore concentrations (Alternaria, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Didymella, Ganoderma) in Cracow, Poland
Source: Aerobiologia, Volume 25, Number 4, December 2009 , pp. 333-340(8)
Abstract:Aerobiological monitoring enables the definition of seasonal fungal spore concentrations and also intradiurnal time when the highest concentrations of spores could cause or increase allergy symptoms. These data are useful to estimate symptoms of disease, duration of infection and how advanced the illness is in people suffering from fungal allergens. The aim of the study was to compare the concentrations of fungal spores (Alternaria, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Didymella, Ganoderma) during dry and rainy periods and to analyse their intradiurnal changes. Average daily spore concentrations in dry and rainy periods were compared, using z test, separately for each taxon, season and for a combined 3-year period. Intradiurnal periodicity of fungal spore concentrations was analysed on the basis of three complementary diagrams. These spore concentrations were presented using three curves for all, dry and rainy days in 1997–1999 (April–November). The spore percentage in particular hours was normalized in relation to the daily spore sum accepted as 100%. Two further diagrams enabled the more precise analysis of the highest concentrations in dry days. Daily Botrytis and Cladosporium spore concentrations did not show significant differences between dry and rainy periods. In the case of Didymella and Ganoderma spore concentrations, there were no significant differences between both weather types in the single years, although there was a significant difference when a 3-year period was considered. The differences between daily concentrations of Alternaria spores in dry and rainy periods occurred in 1997 and in a 3-year period. Intradiurnal periodicity of spore concentrations was different for ‘dry’ and ‘wet’ fungal spores. Dry spores are released from the spore-producing parts of the fungus under conditions of decreasing humidity and increasing airflow. Examples of dry spores are those from Alternaria, Cladosporium and Botrytis. Wet spores, such as those from many Ascomycetes (Didymella) and Basidiomycetes (Ganoderma), are released into the atmosphere by processes related to humidity conditions or rain. The highest concentrations of ‘dry’ spores were observed early in the afternoon, while highest values of ‘wet’ spore concentrations occurred in the predawn hours. Statistically non-significant differences between daily spore concentrations in dry and rainy periods of single seasons were found except for Alternaria. Statistically significant differences could occur when the studied period was longer than one season (Alternaria, Didymella, Ganoderma). The highest concentrations of Alternaria, Botrytis and Cladosporium spores were recorded at noon and early in the afternoon. Concentrations of Didymella and Ganoderma spores were highest in the predawn hours.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: December 2009