Spatial patterns in mixed coniferous even-aged, uneven-aged and conversion stands
Author: Hanewinkel, Marc
Source: European Journal of Forest Research, Volume 123, Number 2, September 2004 , pp. 139-155(17)
Abstract:Different methodological approaches from the field of spatial statistics, the index of cluster size (ICS) and quadrat methods such as the two-term and three-term local quadrat variance (TTLQV and 3TLQV) and the new local variance (NLV) were tested to find a simple spatial measure to classify mixed coniferous uneven-aged, even-aged and conversion stands in the central Black Forest area of Germany. Altogether six stands were analysed with regularly distributed sample plots of 0.25 ha (50×50 m), each subdivided into 25 quadrats of 10×10 m. In each of the quadrats, diameter at breast height (dbh) for trees of the overstory (dbh>7 cm) was assessed and classified into three diameter classes. Height measurements were used to develop specific stand height curves for each stand and to calculate the standing volume per tree and per quadrat. The even-aged stands showed a regular distribution of the standing volume, while the conversion and uneven-aged stands were more clustered. This was detected using ICS, which proved to be a simple but very efficient measure for stand structure. The ICS also showed a highly random distribution of small and medium trees and a regular distribution of large trees of the overstory in the uneven-aged stand. Large and medium trees of one even-aged stand were also regularly distributed while conversion stands showed a regular, random or slightly clustered distribution of these trees. The more uneven the ages in the stands were, the larger were the phases detected by the NLV. The findings of the ICS were generally supported by the TTLQV and 3TLQV. The more uneven the ages in a stand were, the less clustered were the trees of different sizes of the understory. Clustering also decreased with increasing height of understory trees. The patterns detected in the investigated stands were related to the effect of different management regimes. Implications for the management of conversions stands based on the findings of the study are given.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Institute of Forestry Economics, University of Freiburg, Tennenbacherstr. 4, 79106 , Freiburg, Germany, Email: Marc.Hanewinkel@forst.bwl.de
Publication date: September 2004