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Acaricidal activity of triketone analogues derived from Leptospermum scoparium oil against house‐dust and stored‐food mites

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BACKGROUND: Various attempts to control the populations of house‐dust and stored‐food mites have been implemented using synthetic chemicals. Although effective, the repeated use of these chemicals has led to resistance owing to the mite's high reproductive potential and short life cycle. Therefore, this study aimed to develop natural acaricides using oils derived from Leptospermum scoparium JR & G Forst., which may affect the overall biological activity of a mite without adverse effects. Results were compared with those from using benzyl benzoate and N,N‐diethyl‐3‐methylbenzamide (DEET).

RESULTS: The LD50 values of L. scoparium oil were 0.54, 0.67 and 1.12 µg cm−2 against Dermatophagoides farinae (Hughes), D. pteronyssinus (Troussart) and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) respectively. The active constituent isolated from L. scoparium was identified as leptospermone (6‐isovaleryl‐2,2,4,4‐tetramethyl‐1,3,5‐cyclohexanetrione) by spectroscopic analysis. Based on the LD50 values of leptospermone and its derivatives, the most toxic compound against D. farinae was leptospermone (0.07 µg cm−2), followed by 2,2,4,4,6,6‐hexamethyl‐1,3,5‐cyclohexanetrione (1.21 µg cm−2), benzyl benzoate (10.03 µg cm−2) and DEET (37.12 µg cm−2). Furthermore, similar results were observed when the leptospermone and its derivatives were tested against D. pteronyssinus and T. putrescentiae.

CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that L. scoparium oil‐derived materials, particularly leptospermone and 2,2,4,4,6,6‐hexamethyl‐1,3,5‐cyclohexanetrione, have potential for development as new agents for the control of three species of mite. Copyright © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry
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Keywords: Dermatophagoides farinae; Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; Leptospermum scoparium; Tyrophagus putrescentiae; acaricidal activity

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2009-03-01

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