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Toxicity of δ‐phenothrin and resmethrin to non‐target insects

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BACKGROUND: The susceptibility of adult house cricket, Acheta domesticus (L.), adult convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens (Guérin‐Méneville), and larval fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith), to resmethrin and δ‐phenothrin synergized with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) was evaluated in a laboratory bioassay procedure.

RESULTS: The 1 day LC50 values for resmethrin + PBO were 23.2, 32.08 and 307.18 ng cm−2 for A. domesticus, H. convergens and S. frugiperda respectively. The 1 day LC50 values for δ‐phenothrin + PBO were 26.9, 74.91 and 228.57 ng cm−2 for A. domesticus, H. convergens and S. frugiperda respectively. The regression relationship between species mortality and concentration explained 51–81% of the variation for resmethrin + PBO and 72–97% of the variation for δ‐phenothrin + PBO. The LC50 values decreased with time for these insecticides for all surrogate species. In terms of sensitivities among the insects to resmethrin + PBO and δ‐phenothrin + PBO, A. domesticus was most sensitive, followed by H. convergens and then S. frugiperda.

CONCLUSION: The results indicate that resmethrin + PBO was generally more toxic than δ‐phenothrin + PBO. Based on the results, A. domesticus seems to be a good surrogate species for estimating potential non‐target terrestrial insect impacts from exposure to pyrethroids used in public health applications. Copyright © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry
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Keywords: Acheta domesticus; Hippodamia convergens; Spodoptera frugiperda; convergent lady beetle; ecotoxicology; fall armyworm; house cricket; insecticide toxicity; risk assessment

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 01 March 2009

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