Contribution of contact toxicity and wheat condition to mortality of stored-product insects exposed to spinosad
Spinosad, a reduced-risk commercial insecticide derived from a bacterial fermentation product, possesses both contact and oral toxicities against insects. Contact toxicity of spinosad to adults of Rhyzopertha dominica (F), Sitophilus oryzae (L), and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) was evaluated by exposure for 24 or 48 h to treated glass Petri dishes. Adults were exposed to different deposits (0.001–0.79 mg cm-2) of spinosad in 24-h tests and to deposits of 0, 0.0016 and 0.016 mg cm-2 in 48-h tests. Rhyzopertha dominica was most susceptible to spinosad in 24- and 48-h tests, followed by S oryzae, and T castaneum. The 24-h LD50 values were 0.0004, 0.077 and 0.189 mg cm-2 for R dominica, S oryzae, and T castaneum, respectively. All R dominica adults were dead following 48 h exposure to both spinosad deposits, whereas mortality of S oryzae and T castaneum ranged from 10 to 85% and 12 to 48%, respectively. Rhyzopertha dominica, T castaneum, and O surinamensis adults were exposed for 14 days to whole wheat, cracked wheat and wheat flour treated with 0, 0.1 and 1.0 mg kg-1 of spinosad. Rhyzopertha dominica adults were highly susceptible to spinosad, followed by O surinamensis and T castaneum. Immatures (eggs and larvae) of T castaneum and O surinamensis exposed for 14 days were more susceptible on spinosad-treated whole wheat than on treated cracked wheat and wheat flour. This is the first report documenting contact activity of spinosad, and the effect of grain condition on spinosad toxicity, to stored-product insects. Copyright © 2003 Society of Chemical Industry
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