Soluble Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1 (sTREM-1) as a Diagnostic Marker of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia

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OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples from patients who underwent bronchoscopy for a clinical suspicion of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), to categorize patients as VAP positive and VAP negative, when compared to quantitative culture results of BALF. METHODS: Observational study conducted on admitted patients in the trauma-surgical, medical-cardiac, burn, and neurosurgical ICUs of Harborview Medical Center between March 2009 and May 2010. BALF and EBC samples were obtained from 45 patients with clinically suspected VAP. Bronchoscopy was performed on the day of clinically suspected VAP. sTREM-1 levels in EBC and BAL fluid were measured using quantikine human TREM-1 immunoassay. VAP was diagnosed by quantitative cultures of BALF. RESULTS: The concentrations of sTREM-1 in BALF and EBC did not correlate with VAP status. sTREM-1 levels did not discriminate VAP positive from VAP negative patients, when compared to quantitative cultures of BALF as the gold standard. Using a cutoff value of 204 pg/mL for BALF sTREM-1 levels resulted in a sensitivity of 79% and a specificity of 23%. A cutoff value of 10 pg/mL for EBC sTREM-1 levels resulted in a sensitivity of 42% and a specificity of 50%. CONCLUSIONS: EBC and BALF sTREM-1 levels did not effectively categorize patients as VAP positive or VAP negative when using direct bronchoscopic quantitative culture samples as the comparison standard.

Keywords: ARDS; VAP; acute respiratory distress syndrome; biomarkers; bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; human; sTREM-1 protein; soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells; ventilator-associated pneumonia

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: Center for Lung Biology, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA

Publication date: December 1, 2012

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