Pulmonary Zygomycosis in a Non-neutropenic Patient With Myelodysplastic Syndrome on Lenalidomide

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Pulmonary zygomycosis is an uncommon infection that occurs mostly in immunocompromised patients. We report the case of a 75-year-old man with myelodysplastic syndrome, treated with lenalidomide for 3 months, who developed respiratory failure and a rapidly progressive left upper lobe consolidation. An extensive workup was unrevealing of the etiology, and the patient expired. A full autopsy was declined, but an in situ post-mortem transbronchial lung biopsy revealed pulmonary zygomycosis. This unique case illustrates the potential risks of lenalidomide therapy in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and the difficulties in diagnosing pulmonary zygomycosis. To our knowledge this is the first report of a diagnostic in situ post-mortem transbronchial lung biopsy.

Keywords: lenalidomide; myelodysplastic syndrome; opportunistic infections; pulmonary fungal infections; zygomycosis

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4187/respcare.01346

Affiliations: Division of Internal Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Publication date: July 1, 2012

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