CPAP and Bi-level PAP Therapy: New and Established Roles

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Over the past few decades, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea has evolved into more and more sophisticated modes of therapy for various forms of sleep-disordered breathing. While the principles of splinting the airway and delivering assisted ventilation underpin the basics of this therapy, the introduction of newer technologies and miniaturization are revolutionizing the former conventions of the field. The purpose of this review is to improve our understanding of various forms of PAP therapy by providing the rationale for such modalities, gaining a basic working knowledge of device technology, and critically assessing the clinical research evidence while identifying barriers to implementation. Dissemination of such information is vital in order to prevent knowledge gaps in healthcare providers and systems.
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