Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common chronic respiratory disease that results from complications related to the lung injury during the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome, or develops in older infants when abnormal lung growth occurs. The definition and classification of BPD have changed since the original diagnosis was established many years ago. The incidence of BPD continues to grow as lower-birth-weight infants continue to survive. The primary focus of all treatment associated with premature infants is on prevention of BPD. Surfactant replacement, invasive and noninvasive ventilation techniques, management of the patent ductus arteriosus, cautious management of oxygen therapy, caffeine, inhaled nitric oxide, and changes in delivery room practices have been studied to assess their effects on the development of the disease. Other strategies used to reduce the long-term effects of this chronic lung disease include bronchodilators, inhaled and systemic steroids, nutrition management, and selected ventilator strategies. The prevention of BPD is targeted at minimizing effects of this pulmonary disease and preventing the long-term sequelae associated with its treatment.