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Ten million or more newborns worldwide each year need some type of resuscitation assistance. More than 1 million babies die annually from complications of birth asphyxia. Over the past 3 decades, neonatal resuscitation has evolved from disparate, word-of-mouth teaching methods to organized
programs. The most widely-used curriculum is the Neonatal Resuscitation Program, which is supported by the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Heart Association. To date more than 1.5 million individuals have been trained in the Neonatal Resuscitation Program. Resuscitation efforts
are geared toward avoiding or mitigating the adverse sequelae of asphyxia neonatorum. Certain characteristics distinguish the preterm infant, including propensity to become hypothermic and higher potential for adverse neurologic and pulmonary complications from resuscitation efforts. In this
era of evidence-based medicine the most recent Neonatal Resuscitation Program guidelines were developed to provide recommendations based on the best currentlyavailable science. A number of major proposals received considerable scrutiny during the evaluation process. Many areas of neonatal
resuscitation still need to be studied.