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Injuries, Amenorrhea and Osteoporosis in Active Females: An Overview

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Menstrual abnormalities, and the associated osteoporotic disorders, are becoming increasingly common in females who are engaged in heavy training and exercise schedules. Such conditions may lead to a significant decrease in vertebral bone density, and an increase in injuries to the hip, ankle, foot, and wrist. In general, fracture frequency increases as bone mineral density decreases. Many researchers have linked various factors, including nutrition, low body weight, low caloric intake, hormonal status, and psychological and physiological stress, to the cause of amenorrhea. However, controversy still exists about the actual etiology of the disorder, although it is most probably multi-factorial. Whatever the actual etiology, the frequency of bone-related injuries has increased dramatically over the last few decades along with the increased popularity of dance and sports and the increased demands placed upon both female dancers and athletes.

Document Type: Review Article

Affiliations: 1: School of Health Sciences, Wolverhampton University, England 2: School of Health Sciences, Wolverhampton University, Wolverhampton, WV1-1DJ, United Kingdom

Publication date: 1998-09-01

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