The response of the coastal ocean to strong offshore winds: With application to circulations in the Gulfs of Tehuantepec and Papagayo
Abstract:Two ocean models are used to investigate the response of the coastal ocean to strong offshore winds: a linear 1½-layer model, and a nonlinear 1½-layer model that allows entrainment of cool water into the surface layer. The models are forced by wind stress fields similar in structure to the intense winter-time, mountain-pass jets (∼20 dyne/cm2) that appear in the Gulfs of Tehuantepec and Papagayo for periods of 3–10 days. Solutions are arranged in a hierarchy of increasing dynamical complexity, in order to illustrate the important physical processes. They compare favorably with observations in several ways.
Some properties of solutions are the following. While the wind strengthens there is an ageostrophic current (not Ekman drift) that is directed offshore. This offshore drift forces coastal upwelling, thereby lowering the local sea level and sea surface temperature (SST). Although the drop in sea level at the coast can be large and rapid (of the order of 20 cm at the peak of a wind event), none of this signal propagates poleward as a coastally trapped wave. While the wind weakens the ageostrophic current is directed onshore, and consequently the coastal ocean readjusts toward its initial state. Throughout the wind event, cyclonic and anticyclonic gyres spin up offshore on either side of the jet axis due to Ekman pumping. Entrainment cools SST offshore, on and to the right (looking onshore) of the jet axis, and virtually eliminates the cyclonic gyre. The advection terms intensify the anticyclonic gyre and give it a more circular shape. After a wind event, the anticyclonic gyre propagates westward due to . Its propagation speed is enhanced over that of a linear Rossby wave due to the nonlinear terms associated with the increased layer thickness at the center of the gyre and with the divergence of momentum flux.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 1989-02-01
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