Skip to main content

Engaging the Patient as Observer to Promote Hand Hygiene Compliance in Ambulatory Care

Buy Article:

$20.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)


Background: Monitoring hand hygiene guideline compliance in an ambulatory environment can be challenging. For example, direct observation by independent observers is impractical because the sink and hand sanitizer dispensers are most often located inside the examination room. At Johns Hopkins Outpatient Center, an ambulatory care facility located on the campus of The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, patients were engaged as an observer in monitoring hand hygiene compliance.

Methods: The Johns Hopkins Hospital's ambulatory quality and patient safety (AQPS) task force, after assessing common methods of monitoring hand hygiene compliance including direct observation, self-reporting, and product usage, evaluated using the patient as an observer.

Results: Of 50 patients interviewed, 43 (86%) indicated a willingness to monitor and report providers' compliance with hand hygiene guidelines. In collaboration with providers, a patient-as-observer hand hygiene monitoring process was developed and piloted. Qualitative feedback postimplementation did not indicate that the process would inhibit the patient-provider relationship. The cost of the program to implement and maintain averages $0.17 per patient encounter. The overall patient response rate was 21.6% (range, 12%–77%), based on completed observation cards to total appointments completed. Hand hygiene compliance as measured by the patient-as-observer process averaged 88% (range, 74%–100%). Independent observation revealed 100% concurrence between the patient's recorded observation and the independent observer.

Discussion: Engaging the patient to report on hand hygiene compliance was found to be efficient and acceptable to patients and providers, and the results of the observations were representative of actual provider behavior.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: October 1, 2009

More about this publication?
  • Published monthly, The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety is a peer-reviewed publication dedicated to providing health professionals with the information they need to promote the quality and safety of health care. The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety invites original manuscripts on the development, adaptation, and/or implementation of innovative thinking, strategies, and practices in improving quality and safety in health care. Case studies, program or project reports, reports of new methodologies or new applications of methodologies, research studies on the effectiveness of improvement interventions, and commentaries on issues and practices are all considered.

    David W. Baker, MD, MPH, FACP, executive vice president for the Division of Healthcare Quality Evaluation at The Joint Commission, is the inaugural editor-in-chief of The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety.

    Also known as Joint Commission Journal on Quality Improvement and Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Safety
  • Editorial Board
  • Information for Authors
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Information for Advertisers
  • Reprints and Permissions
  • Index
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more