Clinical Microsystems, Part 3. Transformation of Two Hospitals Using Microsystem, Mesosystem, and Macrosystem Strategies
Abstract:Background: Two hospitals—a large, urban academic medical center and a rural, community hospital—have each chosen a similar microsystem-based approach to improvement, customizing the engagement of the micro-, meso-, and macrosystems and the improvement targets on the basis of an understanding of the local context.
Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC): Since 2004, strategic changes have been developed to support microsystems and their leaders through (1) ongoing improvement training for all macro-, meso-, and microsystem leaders; (2) financial support for physicians who are serving as co-leaders of clinical microsystems; (3) increased emphasis on aligning academic pursuits with improvement work at the clinical front lines; (4) microsystem leaders' continuous access to unit-level data through the organization's intranet; and (5) encouragement of unit leaders to share outcomes data with families.
Cooley Dickinson Hospital (CDH): CDH has moved from near closure to a survival-turnaround focus, significant engagement in quality and finally, a complete reframing of a quality focus in 2004. Since then, it has deployed the clinical microsystems approach in one pilot care unit (West 2, a medical surgery unit), broadened it to two, then six more, and is now spreading it organizationwide. In "2+2 Charters," interdisciplinary teams address two strategic goals set by senior leadership and two goals set by frontline microsystem leaders and staff.
Discussion CCHMC and CDH have had a clear focus on developing alignment, capability, and accountability to fuse together the work at all levels of the hospital, unifying the macrosystem with the mesosystem and microsystem. Their improvement experience suggests tips and actions at all levels of the organization that could be adapted with specific context knowledge by others.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2008-10-01
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